Project Title: Resilience of SACCOs in the Hospitality, Aviation and Horticulture sectors to Covid-19 systemic shock (The Resilience Project)
Background of study: study is founded on the fact that, in Kenya, the number of Covid-19 cases have steadily risen since the first case was reported in March, 2020 and the effects of these is seen in the extreme poverty which is continuing to rise, and in the dramatic increase in unemployment. Women and young people working in the informal sector are being hit the hardest. In this emerging scenario, the role of SACCOs in promoting safe and inclusive societies is critical. Study objectives: To investigate how cooperatives have responded to the pandemic and the extent to which they have served as pillars around which members can resist, cope with, and recover from the impact of Covid-19 shocks. Specifically, investigate strategies employed by SACCOs in the hospitality, aviation and horticulture sectors, to increase their resilience to systemic shocks brought about by Covid-19, and interventions put in place by the SACCOs to support members, particularly women, and the surrounding vulnerable communities to cope with the pandemic. Study approach: the study employed a mixed methods approach to generate rich quantitative and qualitative data that provide deeper insights into resilience, which we conceptualized as capacity to resist, cope with and recover from Covid-19 induced shocks. The study targeted SACCOs (sample of 15 SACCOS) in three sectors, namely, aviation (2 SACCOs), horticulture (7 SACCOs), and hospitality (6 SACCOs), which were disproportionately affected due to cessation of air travel announced by the Kenya Government in April 2020 as one of the Covid-19 cross-border spread containment measures. Therefore, the study sought to answer the following four research questions: (i). How has Covid-19 impacted on the business environment (in terms of economic performance and sustainability; enabling environment, and, membership services and engagement) of SACCOs in hospitality, aviation, and horticulture sectors? (ii). How have SACCOs responded to Covid-19 to remain afloat and continue providing services to members? (iii). Has Covid-19 disproportionately affected women members of SACCOs in hospitality, aviation, and horticulture sectors? And, (iv). What interventions have SACCOs in the three sectors instituted to support vulnerable members and the community to cope with the impacts of Covid-19?
Key findings: The study found out that Men dominate the three sectors aviation, horticulture, hospitality, an indication of continued gender disparity in the cooperative sector; Covid-19 led to a drop in revenue for the SACCOs and the need to restructure loans as members had lost jobs or were facing financial challenges due to salary cuts; The results show that Covid-19 had a greater impact on women compared to men on several areas, including on health expenditure, increased gender-based violence, greater conflict with children at home and generally being unable to meet basic needs. It was recommended that, the finding that women coped better through various strategies such as establishing alternative business or sources of income should also serve to reduce the strain on the SACCOs during such shocks calls for focused attention on membership of women in cooperatives. SACCOs should be encouraged to make deliberate efforts to increase representation of women.
Project funding source: Sponsored by USAID through the US Overseas Co-operative Development Council (OCDC). Project Period: 12/12/2020 to 09/12/2021. Project Implementer: Co-operative University of Kenya, Project team: Prof. Isaac K. Nyamongo – Principal Investigator, Prof. Kennedy Waweru, Prof. Wycliffe Oboka, Dr. Lucy Kiganane, Dr. Charles Wambu and Dr. Lydia Mutua.
Project Status: Completed at 99%, dissemination stage. Project Grant: USD. 50,015.47
Project Title: Capacity Development for Taita Taveta County Government staff drawn from the Co-operative Development sub-sectors and the County Assembly committee on Co-operatives.
Background of project: RTI International, through the funding support of USAID, is implementing a 5-year (2017 – 2022) project as part of Feed the Future, the U.S. Government’s global hunger and food security initiative that helps to increase agricultural production and reduce poverty and malnutrition in Kenya, dubbed Kenya Crops and Dairy Markets Systems (KCDMS) in Taita Taveta County and other selected counties in Kenya. KCDMS’s goal is to transform agricultural market systems to enable intensification and diversification into higher value commodities, value addition and non-farm activities; create a conducive policy environment for increased private-sector investment in KCDMS target commodities and for inclusive agribusiness growth. The Co-operative University of Kenya as project implementer, was identified through the mutual benefiting working relationship and MoU singed with the County Government of Taita Taveta (CGTT). The assignment entailed undertaking the training needs assessment and designing of learning plan and implement the course at the CGTT.
The specific objectives; (a). undertake participatory identification and confirmation of the training needs of the Taita Taveta County (TTC) cooperative development subsector staff and County Assembly Committee on Cooperatives; (b). design and deliver two customized courses targeting Taita Taveta County Cooperative (Staff and MCAs; and (c). prepare and submit two (2) branded hard copies and soft copies of the two courses undertaken.
Approach: The project deployed a participatory-learning – approach, through workshops and meetings, where a total of 20 county staff supporting the co-operative development subsectors, and the 15 members of county assembly committee on cooperatives. The project started in July, 2021 and is supposed to end in September, 2021.
Preliminary Findings: The project is underway, having concluded the Training Needs Assessment (TNA) activities, it was noted that (i). Majority of the staff though interested in grooming co-operatives; they do not possess specific co-operative knowledge and skills needed to drive this initiative; (ii). The functional area of co-operative development is acutely understaffed and underserved. Through a teamwork approach, it may need the services of other staff in the same department, notably agriculture, livestock, and trade since they share some common business interests about co-operatives. Therefore, need for specific training about co-operatives for all staff of CGTT department of Cooperatives and subsectors; (iii). An inductive co-operative education and training curriculum is most suited to this target group of respondents; (iv). Co-operatives in the county are faced with many problems but not all can be solved through education and training alone. A substantial number are dormant and need to be revived to drive the County’s socio-economic development.
Project status: Ongoing at 40% to completion; Next steps: A tailor – made curriculum has been developed and approved by the stakeholders for implementation during the period August, 9 to September 30, 2021.
Project Grant: The project is funded by USAID through RTI International.
Project implementer: The Co-operative University of Kenya; Project Team: Prof. Esther Gicheru – Leader, Prof. Wycliffe Nyamongo, Richard Mwangeka and Silas Maiyo; Project Grant: Kshs. 3,749,398.40
Project Title: Analysis of Spatial Distribution, Capacity and Cooperation among Disaster Risk Management Actors in Kenya.
Background of study: Premised on understanding that disasters are one of the greatest challenges to social-economic progress and human security, this project is meant to contribute to the reduction in disaster risks in Kenya through enhancement of partnership and cooperation among Disaster Risk Management actors. The objectives are: (i). analyze the spatial distribution of disaster risk management actors in Kenya; (ii). evaluate the level of cooperation among Disaster Risk Management actors in Kenya; and, (iii) develop an Integrated Disaster Risk Management System (Digital Platform) for enhancement of cooperation and partnership among disaster risk management actors. Study has been completed. Project period: 2018 – 2021. The development of Integrated Disaster Risk Management System commenced after gathering of the preliminary data and undertaking situational analysis, therefore the testing of the platform is ongoing. The project will enable development of a digital database on disasters in Kenya, which will guide disaster risk reduction interventions and partnership among actors in Kenya.
Implementing institutions / collaborators: The Co-operative University of Kenya; Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology; and, Kibabii University. Project Team: Prof. Wycliffe Oboka – Principal Investigator; Others: Prof. Ken Onkware, Dr. Jacinta Kingori, Calvice Ouko, Silas Maiyo and Steve Ogallo.
Project Grant: Project is funded by National Research Fund – Kenya. Funding Level: The sum awarded was KES 8,146,500. Two disbursements made: 1st disbursement was KES 4073250; 2nd disbursement- KES 2,443,950. Balance of KES 1,629,300 to complete funding for the project.
Project status: Ongoing at 80% to completion.
Project Title: Technical Backstopping for Development of Cooperative Business and Strategic plan & Capacity building on Cooperative Equity, Financial management and Taxation for Selected worker-owned Cooperative Societies.
Background of study: The Co-operative Leadership Engagement Advocacy and Research (CLEAR) program funded by USAID and being implemented by Global Communities in Kenya, engaged the Co-operative University of Kenya (CUK) to provide enhanced technical backstopping services for development of Cooperative Business and Strategic plans, training selected (about 15) worker-owned co-operative societies on co-operative equity, financial management and taxation, so as cooperative societies can strengthen their business acumen and performance of start-up cooperative businesses while integrating and empowering the youth and women within the cooperative business structures in targeted urban and peri-urban markets to increase economic participation and county revenue growth.
Overall objective: Provide technical assistance to the growing cohort of worker-owned/ service and housing cooperatives under the second pillar of the CLEAR program. Specifically, with focus on Business and Strategic Plans formulation and validation using Business Model Canvas tool and Provision of one-on-one coaching and training to the selected cooperatives, on cooperative equity, financial management and taxation.
Output: The project benefited Uprising Housing Cooperative Society limited and WISe Co-operative limited. Where the leadership and membership were training on the identified areas, formulation and domestication of Business and Strategic plans were implemented with adoption of Business Model Canvas.
Project period: December, 2020 – July 2021. Project Grant: Kshs. 990,000
Project status: Completed (100%). Implementers: The Co-operative University of Kenya (Prof. Esther Gicheru – team leader, Dr. Moses Gweyi, Dr. Michael Ngala, Dr. Argan Wekesa, Silas Maiyo, Peter Ndwiga, and Victor Wambua).
Project Title: Leadership for Change Project, dubbed LFC Project.
Background of study: The Leadership for Change (LFC) project was designed to meet the requirement of the most disadvantaged youth and women in co-operatives and farmer based organizations, drawn from low-economies, rural setups. The project is implemented in the three (3) East African Countries; Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. The project is implemented jointly between The Co-operative University of Kenya, providing technical backstopping assistance and We Effect as the main financier. The project is premised on We Effect vision, which is “sustainable and Just world free of poverty”. The overall aim of the project was to have the right people with the capacity in the right place through training, research and innovation. Prime objective of the LFC training: is to entrench effective leadership skills, good corporate governance and skills on entrepreneurship development in Co-operative organizations and MBOs in the region through the LFC Training.
Project Approach: The project is designed into phases, dubbed Arenas, where each Arena is a week long, with four (4) Arenas in a year undertaken in the months of April, July, September, and November. The four Arenas are organized as follows: Arena 1 – Visionary Leadership; Arena 2 – Personal Growth; Arena 3 – Entrepreneurship; and, Arena 4 – Change Management. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, the trainings are delivered through an online learning management system (LMS) powered by CUK.
Project financier: We Effect Project Implementer: The Co-operative University of Kenya
Project lead: Prof. Isaac Nyamongo Project Training Coordinator: Dr. Lydia Mutua, CUK
Project Grant: Kshs 31.4M Project period: Jan 2018 – Dec 2022
Project Title: How to Enhance Financial Inclusion through strengthening the Capacity of Microfinance Sector in Kenya for Profitable and Sustainable Development of MFIs
Background of study: It is indeed evident that the Kenyan microfinance banking industry has witnessed considerable changes. Not only has the number of licensed microfinance institutions increased, but their operating environment and business models have also changed dramatically in terms of service delivery owing to the changes in technology, increased acceptance at grassroots. Their organisational structures have changed, and their social, cultural, financial, and economic and risk exposures continue to evolve rapidly. The professional knowledge and skills of the workforce in this sector has not matched with the steady growth of the sector. Against this background and in light of the continuously evolving institutional environment, a comprehensive review of the existing institutional operating capacity is paramount.
In 2018, Swiss Contact (business-oriented independent foundation for international development cooperation) in partnership with the Co-operative University of Kenya, through a signed MoU, designed a project with intent to promote a more transparent, resilient and stable microfinance banking industry capable of adapting to emerging risks, challenges and opportunities. This was in turn reinforce the financial system stability and contribute towards a more inclusive and sustainable economy; also, to build a professional workforce through professional and short tailor made courses that will jump-start the knowledge, skills and competencies of the human resources managing and operating the MFI sector. Project also, aimed at ensuring the interests of consumers of financial services are protected throughout their relationships with financial institutions, thereby fostering and embedding a customer-centric culture within microfinance banks. Approach: Regional participatory workshops were designed across the country, including, Eastern, Central, Rift Valley, Western and Nyanza regions (based on former provinces, and ecological zones) where one town was selected as central venue to undertake capacity building activities. Microfinance leadership, staff and key stakeholders were involved as beneficiaries of the project.
Project Duration: 2 years since 2019, but was paused due to Covid-19 protocols:
Project Team: Dr. Argan Wekesa – Team lead, others: Dr. L. Mutua, Dr. M. Gweyi, Silas Maiyo, Edna Musyoki and Victor Wambua.
Implementer: The Cooperative University of Kenya Project Financier: Swiss Contact Total Grant: Kshs 3M
GIVE project: ’Gender Inclusive Vaccine Distribution and Delivery Systems) for Newcastle Diseases and Peste des Petits Ruminants among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya)
The GIVE (’Gender Inclusive Vaccine Distribution and Delivery Systems) for Newcastle Diseases and Peste des Petits Ruminants among Small Scale Farmers in Kenya is a three year (April 2019 – April 2022) project supported by IDRC, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, and Global Affairs Canada. The overall project goal is poverty alleviation through gender inclusive vaccines and entrepreneurship and marketing. The objective is to increase women’s participation in poultry and small ruminant distribution chain in Kenya, and transform gender, social and cultural norms and practices to reduce barriers to women participation. The project is being implemented in collaboration with University of Nairobi and Kenya Agricultural Livestock and Research organization KALRO in Makueni County, Kenya. The project is supporting three(3) Master of Arts field research scholarships for Kenyans students during the 2020/2021 academic year for a duration of three years and the scholarships will cover the student’s fieldwork component.
CUK team Prof. I. Nyamongo(PI), Prof. K. Waweru, Dr. L. Kiganane, Dr. O. Miroro
Project value is Kshs 40,238,011
CUK annual conferences
It is commonly accepted that participating in a conference is a great way to be exposed to the latest studies and ideas from the various fields. Conferences are also a way of getting face-to-face or online interactions with leaders/practitioners in specific fields, and a way to gain valuable advice and mentoring for young academicians. Conferences are an invaluable resource to academics beyond just the conference presentations themselves.
The University, in the 2018-2023 strategic plan envisioned to have annual international conferences. In March 2018, The CUK held the second annual conference, which was the first within the strategic plan period under the theme Innovations for sustainable co-operative development. The conference was an outstanding success with prominent expert speakers and engaging debates on sustainable co-operative development. It brought together senior government officials from National and County governments, researchers from local and regional universities and centers, policy makers, business enterprises, practitioners, the cooperative movement from Kenya and beyond and students from various Universities.
The Conference provided a forum for knowledge/experience sharing in the following subthemes:
Subtheme (1) Innovative Technologies for Co-operative Development, Subtheme (2) Environmental Sustainability, Subtheme (3) Sustainable Social Development and Subtheme (4) Sustainable Economic Development.
The conference had a record participation of over 300 participants, with representation from over 10 counties.
Official opening of the conference
The 2nd conference was officially opened by Mr. Ali Noor Ismail the Principal Secretary(PS), State Department of Co-operative Development, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Co-operatives. The PS observed that the conference was in line with the country’s development plans to re-engineer the Co-operative sector to make it profitable and sustainable. Therefore, the University must work in partnership with the government in the effort to alleviate poverty, retain our social service values and train a cadre of competent, dedicated and professional graduates to fit in various public and private sectors, especially the Cooperative Sector. He challenged researchers to focus on the government’s “Big-Four Agenda”, namely, food security, affordable housing, manufacturing, and universal healthcare, which are earmarked as a basis for accelerated social and economic transformation, increased job creation and improved quality of life for all Kenyans.
At the end of the two-day conference the following was noted:
- Participants, particularly from the County Governments, noted that the role of cooperatives is a devolved function of government. They requested the University to collaborate with the County Governments in order to support the functions of the Cooperatives at that County level.
- The Department of Cooperatives requested the Cooperative University of Kenya to prepare a white paper on the role of Co-operatives in driving the Government’s Big Four (Manufacturing, Housing, Universal Healthcare, and Food Security) development Agenda.
3RD CUK ANNUAL CONFERENCE
The third CUK international conference was held in March 2019 under the theme positioning co-operatives at the center of community development. This conference build on the 2018 conference which focused on Innovations for sustainable co-operative development. Conference Highlights included;
- Record participation, over 300 delegates, including representation from overseas (USA, Germany, Netherlands, Canada and others)
- Over 40 papers, including international research results, presented by researchers
- International Young scholars engaged with experts
- Launch of CLEAR- 5 year project by USAID – Global communities by H.E Kivutha Kibwana, Governor of Makueni County.
- “Fireside” online conferencing with USA experts on Big data, Innovations
- 43% women representation in the Conference participation
The conference was officially opened by Mr. Ali Noor, the Principal Secretary (PS), State Department of Cooperative Development, Ministry of Industry, Trade and Cooperatives on behalf of the Cabinet Secretary (CS) Hon.Peter Munya who noted that the conference theme was in line with the government agenda to revive cooperatives and improve the livelihoods of members and communities at large and that Cooperatives had an opportunity and a great role in the realization of the government Big 4 Agenda, namely, food security, affordable housing, manufacturing, and universal healthcare, which are earmarked as a basis for the country’s accelerated social and economic transformation, increased job creation and improved quality of life for all.
The conference had three sub-themes (Box 1), namely, (1) Cooperatives, Sustainable Development and Global Perspectives, (2) The Role of Cooperatives in the “Big Four” Agenda, and (3) Re-imagining Cooperatives in the Era of Big Data. Drawing from the sub-themes, the 2019 Conference directly or indirectly addressed five of the 17 SDGs: SDG 2- zero hunger; SDG 3- good health and well-being; SDG 5- gender equality; SDG 7- affordable and clean energy; and SDG 8- decent work and economic growth.
The key note speakers were Dr. Augustine Rutamu, Vice Chancellor, University of Lay Adventists of Kigali (UNILAK), Rwanda and Mr. Vincent Marangu representing Dr. Gideon Muriuki, CEO, Cooperative Bank of Kenya. Dr. Augustine Rutamu’s key address was titled “Cooperatives, sustainable development and global perspective”, while Dr. Gideon Muriuki presented his key note paper titled “Digital Disruption of the Banking of the 12 sub-sectors of cooperatives”.
- Participants, particularly from the Development partners, national government and movement, noted that there were many cases of mismanagement in the cooperatives. They requested the State
Department of Cooperatives, County Governments and the Cooperative University of Kenya to collaborate with the EACC in order to support the fight against corruption and unethical practice in the cooperatives.
- The Equity Bank requested the Cooperative University of Kenya to prepare a paper on the role of Co-operatives in driving the economy of Kenya through innovations and entrepreneurship with inclusion of youths and women (Manufacturing, Housing, Universal Healthcare, and Food Security) development Agenda.
- The Launch of five (5) year program dubbed CLEAR (2018 – 2023) supported by the USAID through Global Communities. Global Communities is collaborating with CUK and 25 County Governments.
4th CUK annual conference
The 4th CUK Annual conference held on 27th – 28th October, 202 was timely. It came at a time when the country and the co-operative sector was grappling with COVID 19 pandemic. The conference theme “Co-operatives in a Changing ecosystem” was designed to provide an opportunity to the participants to reflect on what has been happening, to share experiences, perspectives and responses to those challenges and at the same time to give thought to setting the directions for the future of co-operatives in changing times. The conference was majorly virtual with few participants attending physically at the main campus, Karen, Nairobi, Kenya.
The 2020 conference saw a participation of high-level international development participants such as Dr. Cilla Ross, Principal Cooperative College, UK as keynote speaker. Again, there was participation from national and county government officials, researchers from local, regional and international Universities and centers, policy makers, business enterprises, practitioners, development partners, the cooperative movement from Kenya and the region, and students from various Universities.
The conference was officially opened by The CUK Vice Chancellor, Prof. Kamau Ngamau who was represented by the Deputy Vice chancellor, academic affairs Prof. Emily Akuno. The VC noted the conference theme “Co-operative in a changing ecosystem’ was in line with the current changes that were necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic, all sectors of the economy had to adjust to the new normal. The education sector was no exception to the changes as a result of COVID 19 and had to be innovative. He cautioned that the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Cooperative Sector was real and that the pandemic required a concerted effort from all to bring it under control.
The 4th CUK annual conference attracted several sponsors such as the Danish Embassy, National Research Fund, DGRV, Kwetu Sacco, Shirika Sacco, Young Scholars initiative and Kolping organization Kenya.
Conference Highlights were
- Participation, over 200 delegates, including representation from overseas (UK, Uganda, Somalia, Tanzania and others) who participated both virtually and physically.
- Panel discussion with panelists from the education and training sector, Agricultural cooperatives, financial co-operatives and County Govts.
- Over 30 papers, including international research results, presented by researchers
The 4th CUK Annual conference had four sub- themes namely, (1) (Re) Membering, (2) Climate Change & adaptation by Cooperatives (3) Cooperatives of the Future and (4) Enablers of Cooperatives.
The general objective of the 2020 Conference was to examine cooperatives from an ecosystem perspective, the opportunities, challenges, and risks portended by a rapidly evolving globalized business world. Specifically, the conference had the following objectives:
- To discuss the concept of membership in cooperatives and explore measures for inclusion of all sections of our society.
- To interrogate the role cooperatives should play in addressing issues of climate change sustainably.
- To discuss the key role played by special purpose cooperatives in addressing SDGs with a special focus of the Big 4 Agenda.
- To explore on the need for re-alignment of businesses for sustainable development
The organization of the conference was spearheaded by a dedicated conference organizing committee. The membership was mainly drawn CUK. The committee was responsible for delivering a successful conference that included, among others, the following activities: mobilization of resources, funding, sourcing for collaborators and partners, identification and invitation of the keynote speakers and delegates, calling for abstracts and papers, posters and exhibitors, creating a strong network of industry players and policy makers; development of conference programming and schedule of activities and resource; event planning and management.
Participants identified the following as the emerging issues;
- Change in regulatory environment – to strengthen the cooperative business model though Alternative Dispute Resolution mechanisms
- Designing, Developing and formulation of resilient cooperative business models that are attractive (inclusivity) to youth, women and PWD.
- Implementation of National Cooperative Policy on the new models of cooperatives such as service/worker co-operatives (transport, construction, drama, health).
- Role of the cooperative business model in addressing challenges facing humanity.
5th CUK ANNUAL CONFERENCE
The 5th CUK Annual Conference – 2021 under the theme “Social and Solidarity Economy as catalyst for resilience, inclusivity and attainment of Sustainable Development Goals” was held on 27th and 28th July, 2021.
The conference was a great success with over 300 participants attending both virtually and in person. There were international participants drawn from institutions in Switzerland, South Africa Côte d’Ivoire, USA, Congo, Zimbabwe, Cameroon and Tanzania.
The two-day conference was officially opened by Ambassador Simon Nabukwesi, Permanent Secretary, State department of University education and research as the chief guest, at CUK main campus, Karen. The PS reminded participants that there was resilience in solidarity. He noted that the resilience of co-operatives was based on what co-operatives are intended to be as organizations and the values and principles that guide them.
The conference objective was to deliberate on resilience of cooperatives and other SSE organizations and their potential in serving as catalyst for inclusivity and attainment of Sustainable Development Goals. This objective was achieved through the conference sub-themes, namely, (1) Social and Solidarity Economy and Resilience; (2) Social and Solidarity Economy and inclusivity; and, (3) Social and Solidarity Economy and Sustainable Development Goals.
The day one keynote speaker Dr. Simel Esim, the Programme manager at the Enterprises Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO), working as Lead on Cooperatives and Social Solidarity Economy, joined the conference from Geneva. Her well researched and skillful presentation revolved around the conference theme. She urged the governments to consider the uptake of the SSE agenda so as to scale up and enable SSE in ways conducive to realizing the ‘transformational vision’ of the SDGs.
Mr. Benard Chitunga, Senior Officer- Partnerships, Donors and Special Projects Affirmative Finance for Women in Africa (AFAWA), Agriculture and Human Development Complex, The African Development Bank joined from Dubai as the speaker for day two. Benard addressed the participants on inclusivity and inclusive economy. He noted that it was time to move women from being consumers to investors and that the economic advancement of women was a prerequisite for inclusive economy and sustainable economic growth.
The conference was organized by the Co-operative University of Kenya, in collaboration with USIAD, Global Communities, CLEAR program Young Scholars Initiative and Shirika Sacco Society.
Participants identified the following as the emerging issues that need to be addressed;
- Change in business models in response to changing environments – to strengthen the cooperative business model though building of resilient SSE organizations and associations;
- Designing, Developing and formulation of resilient cooperative business models, in line with the Social and Solidarity Economy policies and guidelines that are attractive (inclusivity) to youth, women and PWD, and a catalyst for attainment of SDGs.
- Need for the Co-operative sector to appreciate the role of new models of cooperatives such as service/worker-owned co-operatives (transport, construction, drama, health) for sustainable development.
 Resilience as conceptualized in this study is the capacity to resist, cope with and recover from Covid-19 induced shocks.